DNA cryptography in cloud computing

  • CERT Admin
  • Thu Jan 24 2019
  • Cyber Guardian Blog


Secure data transmission or sharing data through internet without exposing data to threats is a main concern of modern era. We share data over internet in formats like text, pictures and videos. While transferring data, we have to be sure that data we sent are not exposed to unauthorized threats and integrity of the content is not harmed.  

To achieve this purpose many ciphering techniques or cryptographic methods are being used these days, we use these methods to hide or scramble data we share in a way that only the receiver will be able to access the content. One of the futuristic cryptographic methods that can be used is DNA Cryptography. DNA Cryptography uses molecular science and biotechnology to create safer, robust and efficient environment for data transmission. DNA cryptography can be seen in mobile networking and cloud computing. 

In 2002, LeonardMax Adleman introduced DNA computing to the world. DNA cryptographic algorithms uses one-time pad and the key is obtained by using DNA bases.in order to increase security of the cipher text, DNA look up tables were also established. 

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid, stores all the information about body features of any organism. DNA is unique for each individual. The bases and bonding in DNA structure plays an important role in DNA computing and cryptography. 

In DNA cryptography the data is secured either inside the DNA (in DNA microdots) or using DNA sequences to create encrypted texts which can only be broken if the correct sequence of DNA bases is known. 

DNA cryptography solves weak spots problems in storing ciphers and helps to solve some primary NP problems giving hope in creating an unbreakable algorithm. 

Cloud computing allows computer programs and stand-alone data to be transferred to a virtual server or the Web for easy user access. Cloud computing is considered a next-generation technology that has revolutionized the computer industry. Cloud computing provides users with a massive infrastructure to perform their tasks and store data. Cloud computing consists of two types of models, the service model (PaaS, SaaS, IaaS) and the deployment model (public, private, hybrid). Normally the cloud client does not want to work with a single cloud provider in due to compatibility issues availability problem and sometimes insider problem. They therefore use several cloud services according to their request. In the area of IT and computer security, application and service security is a more promising area of research. Cloud users transfer their applications and data to the cloud environment. It is therefore necessary that the security methods used in the cloud be better than the traditional methods because of the high security risks and issues. Unauthorized access to data, network and applications by an unauthorized person is the cause of the lack of security and protection of the cloud environment, which affects the productivity and growth of the organization. Determining the level of risk sustainability and focusing on reducing these risks is one of the most important parts of the cloud that cannot be disregarded by the cloud service provider. Cloud computing has some important features that surpass the functionality of traditional services and contribute to the growth of the contemporary IT sector. 

As we all know today, data on the Internet is growing unlimitedly. Several serious problems are raised due to that and must be treated with care. Out of these, safety is one of the main concerns. Many organizations and individuals are now using cloud storage technology to back up and share their data over the Internet. Cloud systems are secured using various cryptographic technologies such as RSA, AES or HCC, etc. However, these technologies may breakdown in the future when the data to be encrypted is huge and bulky. DNA Computing can become practical when it is necessary to solve such huge data encryption problems, as DNA has been proven to be one of the hearty encryption data storage devices created by Mother Nature, which effectively provides information to our body and brain on various activities, etc. We will discuss here one of the possible ways to implement DNA-based cryptographic technique to encrypt cloud data, increase accuracy and reduce processing time. 

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a kind of genetic material that helps to transfer information contained in living organisms, such as small organisms (viruses) to the complex (human). DNA is a double helix structure proposed by Watson and Crick. This DNA structure is made by a long chain of polymer called nucleotides. Each nucleotide composed of three essential components are nitrogenous base, sugar and phosphate. Nitrogen bases consist essentially of two types of pyrimidine and purine bases (cytosine, adenine, guanine and thymine). 

Advances in technology and the increasing use of the Internet are improving the storage capacity of data as standalone storage devices or virtual storage devices. But this progress also poses some problems mainly related to data security. In cloud computing, we process a quantity of data tints stored in remote locations (virtual servers). Security is therefore a more important concern of cloud computing. Here we are working with a new idea to secure data on the cloud with the help of DNA cryptography. 

Data security is a more promising area of the computer industry. Unlimited use of the Internet and the new technological invention are forcing people to think about the security of data or Internet data. In this article, a new approach to DNA cryptography to secure data in the cloud is discussed. However, less research has been done in the field of DNA cryptography.


Sammani Rajapaksha

Sammani is an undergraduate of the Sri Lanka Institute of information technology who is currently following Bachelor of Information Technology specializing in Cyber Security, currently, she is working as an Intern - Information Security Engineer at Sri Lanka CERT|CC 

Last updated: Thu Jan 24 2019